Future of Electric Cars

Future of Electric Cars 

Electric Cars

Hello guys welcome to my blog World Of Electrical Engineering. We discuss the future of Electric Cars in this article.

We all know that the future of Electric Cars is much brighter in next decades and many wide job scopes for electical engineer in future.

Now a days craze of Electric Cars is grow more and more world wide. But in present the growth of Electric Cars is just begin.


Points to be discuss in this Article is mentioned below:


  • 1. History of Electric Cars
  • 2. Introduction to an Electric Cars
  • 3. Basic Construction of Electric Cars
  • 4. Comparison between Electric Cars and Gasoline Cars
  • 5. Top 5 Electric Cars in the World
  • 6. Future career in Electric Vehicle for Electical Engineer.
  • 7. Advantages of Electric Cars
  • 8. Disadvantages of Electric Cars


All the above points are described in detail below:

1. History of Electric Cars

Netherlands and United States creates the first small scale Electric Car.

Nearby 1832, Robert Anderson developed first crude electric vehicle. Here we saw the first electric vehicle in below picture which is built by an english inventor in 1884.


First Electric Vehicle
First Electric Vehicle
The first successful Electric Vehicle is built in United States by William Morrison in between 1889 to 1891.

World's first Hybrid electric car is developed in 1901 by Ferdinand Porche, who is the founder of sports car.



2. Introduction to an Electric Cars

Electric car is a car which is basically propelled by one or more electical motor which use the energy stored in battery and here batteries are rechargeable.

So, For charging of electrical cars, Various charging stations are provided as like a fuel stations. We can also installed the charging point at houses.



3. Basic Construction of Electric Cars

Electric cars
Construction of Electric Car

Basic Parts of an electric car are mentioned below:
  1. Rechargeable Battery
  2. Charging Point
  3. DC to DC Converter
  4. Onboard Charger
  5. Power Electronics Controller
  6. Electric Traction Motor
  7. Traction Battery Pack
  8. Cooling System
  9. Electric Transmission

  • (1) Rechargeable Battery

The electric cars consists large battery pack which used to power the electric motor.

The place of battery is shown in figure of construction. This battery provides the electricity to power vehicle accessories in Electric Cars.

  • (2) Charging Point
Electric cars
Charging Point for Electric Cars

For charge the electric cars, it has own charge port. Charging point connect to the external power supply to charge the traction battery pack.

  • (3) DC to DC Converter

Car accessories work needs a DC power supply, So electric cars consists DC to DC converters. 

DC to DC converters provides normal voltage level which is useful for accessories work and to recharge the auxiliary battery.

  • (4) Onboard Charger

Onboard charger is required to converts AC power supply to charge the traction battery.

Also onboard charger control the main battery parameter such that current, voltage, temperature and state of charge at the time of charging.


  • (5) Power Electronics Controller


Power Electronics Controller Control the flow of electrical power delivered by the traction battery.

Also it controls the torque of the electric traction motor and speed of Electric Traction Motor.


  • (6) Electric Traction Motor
Electric cars
Electric Traction Motor

Electric Traction Motor used to drive the car's wheels by using power from traction battery pack.


  • (7) Traction Battery Pack

Traction battery pack used to store the electricity which is used for Electric Traction Motor.


  • (8) Cooling System

This system maintain the temperature for operation of electric motor, power electronics converter and other components.


  • (9) Electric Transmission

This system transfer the mechanical power from the electric traction motor to the drive wheels.


4. Comparison Between Cars and Gasoline Cars


>>Comparison between Electric Cars and Gasoline Cars is shown in below picture:

Electric cars
Comparison between Electric Cars and Gasoline Cars

Top 5 Electric Cars in the World

Here we mentioned top 5 Electric Cars in the World and also mentioned those features:

(1) Nissan LEAF
Electric cars
Electric Cars :Nissan Leaf 2018
Features of Nissan LEAF:
✓ Wheels: 17 inch aluminium alloy wheels.
✓ Lights: LED taillights and Fog lights
✓ Charging Port: Fast Charging Port
✓ Navigation: 7 inch colour display.
✓ Smart cruise control and Emergency automatic braking system.



(2) BMW i3
Electric cars
Electric Cars:BMW i3 2018

Features of BMW i3:


✓ Camera: Rearview camera
✓ Lights: LED head lights
✓ Navigation: 6.5 inch display screen
✓ Wheels: 19 inch alloy wheels


(3) Mercedes - Benz B - class 
Electric cars
Electric Cars: Mercedes Benz B-Class 2017

Features of Mercedes Benz B - class:


✓ Wheels: Leather trimmed and multifunction steering wheels.
✓ Climate Control: Dual Zone climate Control
✓ Navigation: 7 inch touch screen with audio and bluetooth connectivity.


(4) Chevrolet Bolt EV
Electric cars
Electric Cars: Chevrolet Bolt EV 2018


Features of Chevrolet Bolt EV:

✓ Camera: Rearview camera
✓ Wheels: 17 inch alloy wheels
✓ Navigation: 10.2 inch touch screen with Apple CarPlay and Android Auto
✓ Ignition and entry is keyless.


(5) Ford Focus Electric
Electric cars
Electric Cars: Ford Focus Electric 2018

Features of Ford Focus Electric
✓ Lights: LED taillights
✓ Wheels: Leather wrapped steering wheels
✓ Navigation: 8 inch touch screen with Apple CarPlay and Android Auto
✓ Start with remote and pre air conditioning system.

Future Scopes in Electric Vehicle for Electical Engineer

Future scopes in electical vehicle is bright in government sector as well as in industry.

Ramesh Rayudu says that india will be Electric by 2030.

The nascent EV industry will shift the job of automotive engineers to the electrical engineer.

Advantages of Electric Cars

>> Noise pollution is reduced.
>> Maintenance cost is less.
>> Cheaper to Run.
>> Pollution is less.
>> We can use renewable energy for recharge the Electric Cars.
>> Material used in Electric Cars is eco friendly.
>> Drive is safe.

Disadvantages of Electric Cars

>> Batteries are overloaded.
>> Driving range and speed is short.
>> cost of battery replacement is again and again needed.
>> Some models of Electric Cars are expensive.

Types Of Electric Drive

Types Of Electric Drive

Types of Electical Drive
Types of Electric Drive


Electric drive can be classified into following categories:

(i) Group drive

(ii) Individual drive

(iii) Multi motor drive.


  • 1. Group Drive:


This  is also known as line shaft drive. A big size motor(main motor)drives  a common
shaft.

Diagram of group drive
Diagram of Group Drive


To this shaft, numbers of small machines are connected. Thus a common shaft drives the
small machines.The small machines are connected the common shaft by means of multi stepped pulleys as shown in below Figure.


  • Advantages of group drive 


✓ Single motor of big capacity is used so there is considerable saving in cost.

✓ Maintenance is less.

✓ Efficiency and power factor is better if the motor operates near rated capacity.

✓ If machines are overloaded, the group drive is advantageous because the overload occurring for main motor is very less.


  • Disadvantages of group drive 


✓ Any fault on main motors causes stopping of all small machines connected to the common shaft.

✓ Machine has to be installed at places which is convenient for shafting.

✓ There is no flexibility of layout i.e, shifting of a small machine from one location to other is hardly possible.

✓ If only few numbers of machines are needed to be operated, the main motor operates with a very less capacity hence its efficiency and power factor is poor.

✓ The appearance due to shaft, pulleys etc. are not good.

✓ Speed control of individual small machine is cumbersome.

✓ Considerable amount of power is wasted in power transmission.

✓ Noise level is high.

✓ Future expansion is hardly possible.

Group drive is adopted when existing factories are changed over from engine drive to electric motor drive.


  • 2. Individual Drive:


Individual machine is fitted with its own motor such that drilling machine, lathe machine etc.

Diagram of individual Drive
Diagram of individual Drive


Each operator has complete control of his machines.


  • Advantages of Individual Drive:


✓ Flexibility in layout.

✓ Each machine operates near to rated capacity so efficiency and power factor is better.

✓ Fault on any one machine does not create problem for other machines.

✓ The appearance of layout is good.

✓ It is economical on long term basis.

✓ Speed control of individual machine is easily possible.

✓ Future expansion is possible.

✓ level is comparatively less.


  • Disadvantages of Individual Drive


✓ High initial cost

✓ Power loss in transmission.


  • 3. Multimotor Drive:


In multi motor drive, separate motors are used for operating different parts of same mechanism.

Diagram of multimotor Drive
Diagram of multimotor Drive


i.g. in case of overload crane, different motor are used for hoisting for up and down motion, long travel motion and cross travel motion.

Introduction to Arduino | Pin Function of Arduino | Working Process of Arduino

Introduction to Arduino | Pin Function of Arduino | Working Process of Arduino

Arduino projects
Introduction to Arduino | Pin Function of Arduino | Working Process of Arduino

  • Introduction To Arduino


Arduino is an Italian company that designs and manufactures Open Source Hardware (Microcontroller) and Open Source software or IDE (Integrated Development Environment).


Arduino hardware is such a programmable computerized platform, by working on which the user can combine the hardware and software and prepare the electronic brain according to his own and can control the electronic devices from that electronic brain.



  • What is arduino?


If you want to understand more easily, then we can say that Arduino microcontroller is an empty brain, in which you can upload memory by coding or programming through arduino software, so these are called open source.


Arduino works like a CPU of a board computer. Right now the microcontroller of the arduino of this time that we can take up is like a small mobile phone, these old time computers which needed a very big room to keep,  Arduino's small microcontroller board is many times better than those computers


These microcontroller can read the sensor and write the same value i.e. we can tell it like a thermometer which senses the temperature on display to decimal value print in microcontroller.

Arduino hardware is such a programmable computerized platform on which the user can work together to prepare the electronic brain according to the hardware and software and can control the electronic devices from that electronic brain.



  • Works Of Arduino


To control an electronic device, you can make many electronic projects and also make a machine like an Computer Numerical Control machine from an electronic device, and you can use Arduino in robotic brain, home automation and many other things.  

You can use it in many electronic projects and you can make many gadgets like sonar, pocket radar



  • Parts of Arduino Hardware


I am writing about the parts of Arduino that need to be known, by making Arduino uno Base

Pin Diagram Of Arduino is Shown in below figure:


Arduino



Printed Board


It converts all the circuit part of the arduino into a circuit board. All the components are made together to make the arduino printed circuit board.



USB connection


Through this Arduino software can upload the code / program written in the computer to the arduino board and it works to power the arduino board.



GND Pin


This pins is a short form of Ground, it reduces the ground for external circuit for another terminal.



5 volt power supply 


This pin is used to provide power supply to the entire circuit and another similar pin is 3.3 volt which gives power supply of 3.3 volt to the circuit.



Analog pin


These pins are from A0 to A5 in Arduino UNO i.e. total six pins, these are analog analog input pins like an analog sensor like potentiometer, temperature sensor etc.  Can read or sense and convert the received value to digital value or signal



Digital pin


Digital pin gives output from arduino board from 0 to 13 from which it outputs and outputs on all output components like servo motor, lcd display, led etc.



PWM pin


PWM is pulse width modulation pin. this pin is pwm sign (~) in arduino uno it is 3,5,6,10,11 this is a type of output that is received after input from analog sensor.



Reset button


This is a very useful button of arduino which when pressed or pushed, our uploaded code or program is reset and run / start again if we have written our code / program in void loop then the arduino board gets power only.  


Once run, but after reset button press, the program will run once again, in such a situation, we will not need to give power cut again to check / test the program and remove usb cable and reinstall it.



  • Arduino UNO


The most popular Arduino uno microcontroller board of the Arduino family which has an ATmega328 processor, it has 16 input Output (I / O) Pin which has 6 PWM pin which is a good for beginner if you also know basic fundamentals of electronic.  

So you will be able to use Arduino uno and Arduino Mega is the largest microcontroller of this family which is used to provide electronic projects kits also Arduino can be given power from usb cable and power to power from Ac to Dc Adapter can be given.


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Specifications Of 3 Phase Induction Motor

Specifications Of 3 Phase Induction Motor

Design specifications Of 3 Phase Induction Motor
Specifications Of 3 Phase Induction Motor


Following specifications are required to start the design of 3 phase induction motor: 


  • ✓ Rated output in H.P. or K.W.
  • ✓ Three phases
  • ✓ Frequency in Hz = f
  • ✓ Voltage in volts = V
  • ✓ Connections, star or Delta, Y or ∆
  • ✓ Speed in RPM = N
  • ✓ Type Squirrel cage rotor or wound rotor
  • ✓ Type of Duty (Continuous, intermittent etc.)
  • ✓ Power factor
  • ✓ Efficiency
  • ✓ Class of Insulation
  • ✓ Temperature rise
  • ✓ Full load current
  • ✓ Pull out Torque


Following symbols will be used for design:


  • Q = KVA rating of machine
  • P = Rating of machine in kW
  • Eph = Induced emf per phase in volts
  • (Generally applied voltage per phase = Induced emf per phase)
  • Iph = Current per phase in Amp
  • Tph = Turns per phase
  • D = Diameter of stator core in m.
  • L = Length of stator core in m
  • Ba = Average value of flux density over the air gap Wb/m2
  • ac = Ampere conductor per meter of the stator periphery
  • Ø = Flux per pole in the air gap Wb
  • P = Number of poles
  • n = Synchronous speed in rps
  • Kw = Winding factor
  • T = Pole pitch
  • Z = Total number of stator conductors
  • I = Current in each conductor in Amp
  • η = Full load efficiency

Design of Submersible Motor

Design of Submersible Motor


Design of submersible motor
Design of Submersible Motor


Submersible motor is used to drive the submersible pump. Submersible motor is also a squirrel cage type induction motor.


Its principle and the general construction is similar to the squirrel cage type induction motor.


It means there is laminated stator core and three phase winding in it and there is squirrel
cage rotor.


But as the whole motor is under water, special type of construction has to be employed.


Mainly all the parts are made of the corrosion resistance type materials. Its diameter is
less and the axial length is more.


Instead of using the ordinary bearings the thrust bearings are used.


There are two types of construction
of the submersible motor.

(1) Wet type submersible motor:

This type of motor is completely filled with clean water or oil or emulsion of water and oil.


(2) Dry type submersible motor:

In this type of motor the stator winding is dry and other parts are filled with clean water or oil or emulsion of water and oil.


Construction:

All the parts of the motor should be of corrosion resistance type and should posses the mechanical performance so that these are able to work continuously under water.

Submersible motor


Different parts and their materials
are given in below Table:



(a) Frame of motor:

Frame of the motor is made of cast iron. Casting should be strong and without crack. If necessary the pressure testing of the casting
should be done for crack detection.


Stator: Stator is made of electric sheet steel.


(b) Stator winding:

Stator winding is made of high conductivity annealed copper conductors insulated with PVC.


It should confirm to IS: 8783-1978 and should be appropriate for wet type motor working
under water.


For other type of submersible motor, the stator winding should be made of high conductivity
annealed copper conductors and insulated with enamel.


It should confirm to IS: 4800(Part- VII)-1970. This standard shows specifications of round winding wires with good dielectric properties used in wet condition.


(c) Shaft and rotor:

Shaft is made of carbon steel. Rotor laminations are fitted on the shaft and copper bars are embedded in the slots.


These rods are short circuited at the two ends by copper short circuiting rings. Dynamic balancing of the rotor is done.


Proper epoxy paint is applied on the rotor so that there is no corrosion of the rotor due to water.


(d) Bearings:

(1)Thrust bearings:

Thrust bearing should be provided in the motor so that it can bear the weight of all the rotating parts and the hydraulic thrusts produced in the operating range.


It should be properly lubricated. Housing of the thrust bearing is made of cast iron and the bearing plate is made of bronze and the bearing ring is made of graphite.


Drain plug is provided in the thrust bearing so that oil or water filled in thrust bearing housing or motor can be drained off.


(2)Radial bearing:

Before installing the pump set, radial bearing of the rotary shaft should be lubricated with the clean water or oil.


Protection against external impurities:

Motor should be protected by using cable gland rubber seal, etc. so that water of the bore well, sand and other impurities are prevented
from entering the motor.


Breathing attachment:

Breathing attachment like bellow, diaphragm etc. should be used with motor so that the change in volume produced due to the change in temperature can be compensated.


Earthing:

Earthing of the motor should be done as per IS:3034 - 1966. Earthing of the motor can also be done with the discharge pipe.


Submersible cable:

Cable for submersible motor should be of PVC insulated PVC sheathed type and should confirm to IS: 694 - 1977.


Size of the inner conductor should be sufficient
for the use in air and in water. Consumer should specify the length of the cable required.


If it is not specified, 3 m length or cable is provided with motor. If the cable joint is required the manufacturer should provide
the method of making water tight joint.


Size and the length of the cable should be selected such that voltage drop up to the motor
terminal should not exceed 3 %.


Ratings of motor:

Voltage ratings of the submersible motor should confirm to IS:585-1962. Frequency should be equal to the standard frequency such that 50 HZ.


Change in the voltage and frequency for category A motor should be as per IS: 325 -1978 or as per IS: 996 - 1979 and for category B motor should be as per IS: 7538 - 1955.


(1) Preferred output ratings:

Preferred output ratings should be as per IS:325 - 1978 or as per IS: 996 - 1979.


(2) Speed ratings:

Preferred synchronous speed is 1500 rpm or 3000 rpm.


(3) Rating plate:

The following information is given on the name plate of the motor.


✓ Reference of Indian standards(IS:9283-1979)

✓ Induction motor

✓ Name of the manufacturer

✓ Number of manufacturer and frame reference

✓ Type of duty

✓ Frequency in HZ.

✓ No.of phases

✓ Rated output in kW

✓ Rated voltage and winding connection

✓ Approximate current at rated output

✓ Speed in rpm at rated output

✓ Category of voltage and frequency variations.


For convenient identification, number or manufacturer should be punched on the rating plate.